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Clock Maker My Clock - Ver Digital With Timer [... ((NEW))

In addition to clock and timer features, Clock Maker : My Clock also allows players to draw their own symbols to create their own custom digital clock interface! This feature will allow you to use the touch screen to create whatever kinds of wacky numbers you want displayed.

Clock Maker My Clock - ver digital with timer [...


The history of timekeeping devices dates back to when ancient civilizations first observed astronomical bodies as they moved across the sky. Devices and methods for keeping time have gradually improved through a series of new inventions, starting with measuring time by continuous processes, such as the flow of liquid in water clocks, to mechanical clocks, and eventually repetitive, oscillatory processes, such as the swing of pendulums. Oscillating timekeepers are used in all modern timepieces.

Sundials and water clocks were first used in ancient Egypt from 1500 BC and later by the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Chinese. Incense clocks were being used in China by the 6th century. In the medieval period, Islamic water clocks were unrivalled in their sophistication until the mid-14th century. The hourglass, invented in Europe, was one of the few reliable methods of measuring time at sea.

Error factors in early pendulum clocks included temperature variation, a problem tackled during the 18th century by the English clockmakers John Harrison and George Graham. Following the Scilly naval disaster of 1707, after which governments offered a prize to anyone who could discover a way to determine longitude, Harrison built a succession of accurate timepieces, introducing the term chronometer. The electric clock, invented in 1840, was used to control the most accurate pendulum clocks until the 1940s, when quartz timers became the basis for the precise measurement of time and frequency.

The most accurate timekeeping devices in practical use today are atomic clocks, which can be accurate to a few billionths of a second per year and are used to calibrate other clocks and timekeeping instruments.

The Greek philosophers Anaxagoras and Empedocles both referred to water clocks that were used to enforce time limits or measure the passing of time.[32][33] The Athenian philosopher Plato is supposed to have invented an alarm clock that used lead balls cascading noisily onto a copper platter to wake his students.[34]

A problem with most clepsydrae was the variation in the flow of water due to the change in fluid pressure, which was addressed from 100 BC when the clock's water container was given a conical shape. They became more sophisticated when innovations such as gongs and moving mechanisms were included.[30] There is evidence that the 1st century BC Tower of the Winds in Athens once had eight sundials, a water clock, and a wind vane.[35] In Greek tradition, clepsydrae were used in court, a practise later adopted by the Ancient Romans.[36]

The first geared clock, invented in the 11th century by the Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Islamic Iberia, was a water clock that employed both segmental and epicyclic gearing. Islamic water clocks, which used complex gear trains and included arrays of automata, were unrivalled in their sophistication until the mid-14th century.[37][38] Liquid-driven mechanisms (using heavy floats and a constant-head system) were developed that enabled water clocks to work at a slower rate.[38]

The 12th-century Jayrun Water Clock at the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus was constructed by Muhammad al-Sa'ati, and was later described by his son Ridwan ibn al-Sa'ati in his On the Construction of Clocks and their Use (1203).[39] A sophisticated water-powered astronomical clock was described by Al-Jazari in his treatise on machines, written in 1206.[40] This castle clock was about 11 metres (36 ft) high, and included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar paths, and doors that opened on the hour, to reveal a mannequin.[41] In 1235, a water-powered clock that "announced the appointed hours of prayer and the time both by day and by night" stood in the entrance hall of the Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad.[42]

Incense clocks were first used in China around the 6th century,[43] mainly for religious purposes, but also for social gatherings or by scholars.[44][45] Due to their frequent use of Devanagari characters, American sinologist Edward H. Schafer has speculated that incense clocks were invented in India.[46] As incense burns evenly and without a flame, the clocks were safe for indoor use.[47] To mark different hours, differently scented incenses (made from different recipes) were used.[48]

The incense sticks used could be straight or spiralled; the spiralled ones were intended for long periods of use, and often hung from the roofs of homes and temples.[49] Some clocks were designed to drop weights at even intervals.[44]

Incense seal clocks had a disk etched with one or more grooves, into which incense was placed.[50] The length of the trail of incense, directly related to the size of the seal, was the primary factor in determining how long the clock would last; to burn 12 hours an incense path of around 20 metres (66 ft) has been estimated.[51] The gradual introduction of metal disks, most likely beginning during the Song dynasty, allowed craftsmen to more easily create seals of different sizes, design and decorate them more aesthetically, and vary the paths of the grooves, to allow for the changing length of the days in the year. As smaller seals became available, incense seal clocks grew in popularity and were often given as gifts.[52]

Muslim astronomers constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their mosques and observatories,[56] such as the astrolabic clock by Ibn al-Shatir in the early 14th century.[57]

One of the earliest references to a candle clock is in a Chinese poem, written in 520 by You Jianfu, who wrote of the graduated candle being a means of determining time at night. Similar candles were used in Japan until the early 10th century.[58]

The 12th century Muslim inventor Al-Jazari described four different designs for a candle clock in his book Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices.[60][61] His so-called "scribe" candle clock was invented to mark the passing of 14 hours of equal length: a precisely engineered mechanism caused a candle of specific dimensions to be slowly pushed upwards, which caused an indicator to move along a scale. Every hour a small ball emerged from the beak of a bird.[60]

The English word clock first appeared in Middle English as clok, cloke, or clokke. The origin of the word is not known for certain; it may be a borrowing from French or Dutch, and can perhaps be traced to the post-classical Latin clocca ('bell'). 7th century Irish and 9th century Germanic sources recorded clock as meaning 'bell'.[68]

The first innovations to improve on the accuracy of the hourglass and the water clock occurred in the 10th century, when attempts were made to slow their rate of flow using friction or the force of gravity.[72] The earliest depiction of a clock powered by a hanging weight is from the Bible of St Louis, an illuminated manuscript that shows a clock being slowed by water acting on a wheel. The illustration seems to show that weight-driven clocks were invented in western Europe.[73] A treatise written by Robertus Anglicus in 1271 shows that medieval craftsmen were attempting to design a purely mechanical clock (i.e. only driven by gravity) during this period.[74] Such clocks were a synthesis of earlier ideas derived from European and Islamic science, such as gearing systems, weight drives, and striking mechanisms.[75]

In 1250, the artist Villard de Honnecourt illustrated a device that was the step towards the development of the escapement.[76] Another forerunner of the escapement was the horologia nocturna, which used an early kind of verge mechanism to operate a knocker that continuously struck a bell.[77] The weight-driven clock was probably a Western European invention, as a picture of a clock shows a weight pulling an axle around, its motion slowed by a system of holes that slowly released water.[78] In 1271, the English astronomer Robertus Anglicus wrote of his contemporaries that they were in the process of developing a form of mechanical clock.[79][note 3]

At around the same time as the invention of the escapement, the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri used clock imagery to depict the souls of the blessed in Paradiso, the third part of the Divine Comedy, written in the early part of the 14th century. It may be the first known literary description of a mechanical clock.[87] There are references to house clocks from 1314 onwards; by 1325 the development of the mechanical clock can be assumed to have occurred.[88]

The most famous example of a timekeeping device during the medieval period was a clock designed and built by the clockmaker Henry de Vick in c.1360,[82][95] which was said to have varied by up to two hours a day. For the next 300 years, all the improvements in timekeeping were essentially developments based on the principles of de Vick's clock.[96] Between 1348 and 1364, Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio, the son of Jacopo Dondi, built a complex astrarium in Florence.[97][note 4]

Clock towers in Western Europe in the Middle Ages struck the time. Early clock dials showed hours; a clock with a minutes dial is mentioned in a 1475 manuscript.[106] During the 16th century, timekeepers became more refined and sophisticated, so that by 1577 the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe was able to obtain the first of four clocks that measured in seconds,[107] and in Nuremberg, the German clockmaker Peter Henlein was paid for making what is thought to have been the earliest example of a watch, made in 1524.[108] By 1500, the use of the foliot in clocks had begun to decline.[109] The oldest surviving spring-driven clock is a device made by Bohemian Jacob Zech [cs] in 1525.[105][110] The first person to suggest travelling with a clock to determine longitude, in 1530, was the Dutch instrument maker Gemma Frisius. The clock would be set to the local time of a starting point whose longitude was known, and the longitude of any other place could be determined by comparing its local time with the clock time.[111][112] 041b061a72


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